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Examples of eco-friendly and energy-saving housing complexes built overseas
사례1. Helsinki Eco-Viikki
Viikki 전경사진 (City of Helsinki Ministry of the Environment, Eco-Viikki Aims, Implementation and Results, 2005)
  • According to the plan to expand the campus, the University of Helsinki planned to prepare a relevant site for habitation, and the plan complied with the Finnish government’s plan to prepare an eco-friendly pilot site. As a result, part of the Viikki area was prepared as an eco-friendly town.
  • For the construction of the Viikki town, the Ministry of Environment of Finland, the Association of Architects of Finland, the National Technology Department of Finland and the Helsinki City Planning Department participated.
  • In the case of the Viikki town, support for research and development was encouraged more than the general subsidiary fund support. The direction was set during the progress of the project, while the National Technology Department and the Ministry of Environment jointly prepared relevant measures. The government of Finland judged that pilot projects, such as Vikki town, would be the foundation for the spread of zero-energy towns.

건물에너지 효율

  • Target heating energy consumption: 105 kWh/㎡ (saves 33% compared with general houses)
  • Measured heating energy consumption: 120kWh/㎡ (saves 25% compared with general houses)
  • olar rays: The Salvia solar energy house is Finland’s first high-rise apartment that uses solar energy. The capacity of each household is 24 kW and the solar power accounts for 15–20% of the total electricity consumption. The total solar panel area is 200㎡.
  • Solar heat: Some regions use solar heat for local heating and the total area of the heat collector is 1,248㎡ and about 370 households get the hot water and the heating energy from the solar heat.

※ Source: Comparative study on the zero-energy town policy of major cities around the world by Mingyeong Kim and Jihui Im of The Seoul Institute, 2010. City of Helsinki Ministry of the Environment, Eco-Viikki Aims, Implementation and Results, 2005.

Location : Helsinki, Finland, Area : 230,000㎡, Population : about 1,800

Vikki Salvia solar energy house (http://www.hel.fi)

Example 2. Stockholm Hammarby
Hammaby landscape photo (http://www.onspotstory.com/en/audioguide/1175/Hammarby-Sjostad)
  • After failing to attract the Olympics, they constructed a water-friendly, resource-cycling, and ecologically planned city.
  • After going through quantitative growth in 50s and 60s, including the renovation of the administrative system in the 70s, Stockholm City has managed its own affairs as it aims to “build an eco-friendly city,” which was part of the main policies that it promoted in the 90s.
  • Hammarby Sjoestad is a habitation area newly built inside Stockholm City. It is surrounded by nature and is designed to provide a sustainable habitation space integrated with new architecture and modern technologies.
  • he Hammarby Sjoestad project was to be developed as an ecological habitation area with plenty of waterfronts and greens. For this, four waterways were created deep in the lands to create waterfronts as much as possible and construct residential buildings, which are arranged as if they are embracing a large park.

건물에너지 효율

  • Set the goal of reducing building energy by 50% and actual reduced energy by 30–40%.
  • Applied passive technology elements (insulation and air-tightness of walls and windows)
  • Applied balconies for natural lighting
  • Applied shading systems that use wind power
  • Seventy-five percent of the energy sources for Hammarby were supported by Stockholm through the four different types of energy sources (biogas 32%, incineration heat 26%, wastewater heat 22%, and fossil energy 20%)
  • Generated power and provided hot water by using solar energy collected through the light collectors attached on the external surface of the apartment
  • Acquired heat from wastewater and used it for local heating

※ Source: Basic plan establishment for the preparation of the low carbon green city IFEZ by Incheon Development Institute, April, 2011.

Location 60 km to the south of Stockholm, Sweden, Area  2,000,000㎡, Population 25,000

Housing complex inside Hammarby (Source: Myungjoo Lee, Professor at Zero Energy Design Center of Myungji University)

Example 3. United Kingdom Upton
Upton 주택가 (Architecture And Design Scotland, Delivering Better Place:Visual Case Study -Upton, Northampton, England, 2010)
  • Upton is meaningful as it is a case that expanded the BEDZed test and made it into a reality.
  • In this case, the energy element was added to the new towns to resolve the issues related to the supply of houses. Also, the policies for restrictions and support with regard to the environment were well integrated.
  • In 1997, the government of UK launched a development plan by classifying Northampton, an administrative district of Upton, as a growth area in the space strategy for East Midlands.
  • The Homes & Communities of the government of UK as well as o the Prince’s Foundation operated by Prince Charles participated to establish plans and regulations (Upton Design Code).

Efficiency of building energy

  • At that time, it was planned that all houses in Upton were required to get the EXcellent grade of BREEAM/Ecohomes. That grade is equivalent to Level 4 (reduction of energy consumption by 44% compared with general houses in 2006) in the Codes for Sustainable Homes, which was amended in 2007.
  • For some houses, the standard for construction were escalated to Level 6 (houses without carbon emission), and the houses are the zero-carbon houses that were commercialized in the UK. The zero-carbon houses will be purchased by the city government and put up as rental homes for low-income people.
  • Proactively utilized solar energy as renewable energy; used solar heat and solar ray to produce hot water and electricity; introduced small-scale combined heat and power generation, as well as applied enhanced standards for energy and renewable energy

※ Source: Comparative study on the zero energy town policy of major cities around the world, by Mingyeong Kim and Jihui Im of The Seoul Institute 2010.

Location Northampton, UK, Area 440,000㎡, Population 1,380

Example 4. Freiburg Vauban
Vauban landscape (Source: Wooseok Choi, Professor at Zero Energy Design Center of Myungji University)
  • The development of Vauban was started when Freiburg City purchased a land worth EU 20 million from the German government for the purpose of developing a housing complex.
  • Vauban is a special case in terms of the policy of local governments as well as the participation of citizens. Forum Vauban, an organization for the citizens, contributed to deciding on the type of housing and the characteristics of the complex.

Efficiency of building energy

  • The houses in Vauban were designed to save energy by at least 70% compared with general houses in Germany. Also, they were designed to reduce energy by 40% even when compared with new houses at that time.
  • When the houses were constructed, the standard for heating energy consumption was 65 kWh/㎡. However, the actual energy consumption amount was 45 kWh/㎡, meaning that the energy consumed was less than the target.
  • It also planned about 150 passive houses, which the standard for heating energy consumption is 15 kWh/㎡.
  • For the entire complex, CHP (combined heat and power generation) for local heating was introduced. The energy sources include 80% wood pallets and 20% natural gas.
  • Solar energy: In 2000, when the 1st stage construction was to be completed, the solar ray power generation capacity was 120 kW, while CHP and solar energy accounted for 65% of the electrical demand. In the Shili solar complex, there are more than 60 units of plus-energy houses that use solar energy. Some of them earn EU 4,000 on a yearly average by selling electricity.

Apartment at the Vauban complex (Source: Myungjoo Lee, Professor at Zero Energy Design Center of Myungji University) ※ Source: Comparative study on the zero energy town policy of major cities around the world by Mingyeong Kim and Jihui Im of The Seoul Institute, 2010.

Location Freiburg, Germany, Area 330,000㎡, Population 2,000

Habitation area at the Vauban complex (Source: Wooseok Choi, Professor at Zero Energy Design Center of Myungji University)